Final Review Exercises

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In all of the following exercises, you will use all of the modifiers and joining techniques you have practiced in the book. Your goal is to make each set of sentences into one sentence.



Final Review Exercise 1  The Gateway Arch

1.         In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, St. Louis, Missouri, played a significant role.

The role was in westward expansion.






2.         Ordinary people were drawn to the western reaches of the United States.

The people hoped for a better place to work and raise children.






3.         St. Louis was a source for western commercial ventures.

St. Louis was a starting point for pioneer journeys west.






4.         Steamboats lined the Mississippi River levee.

The levee was cluttered with cargo.






5.         The streets were filled with shops.

The shops were blacksmith shops, gun shops, general stores, and taverns.






6.         In 1934, a group of St. Louis citizens formed the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Association.

The citizens wanted to establish a memorial.






7.         The memorial would honor Thomas Jefferson.

            The memorial would honor people.

            The people left their eastern and midwestern homes.

            The people wanted to travel to the unknown western frontier.







8.         One such person was James Marshall.

Marshall worked at Sutters Fort in California.







9.         Marshall discovered the first gold nugget in 1848.

The discovery altered the course of western history.







10.       Another settler honored is Sacajawea.

            Sacajawea was a young Indian guide.

            Sacajawea was the only woman on the famous Lewis and Clark expedition.







11.       The memorial honors homesteaders.

            The homesteaders had crops.

            The crops were devastated by weather.

            The crops were devastated by plagues.

            The plagues were of grasshoppers.







12.       The citizens' group chose the city's riverfront area as the site for the memorial.

The riverfront area was the original location of the city.






13.       The riverfront memorial park has a central feature.

            The central feature is a 630-foot arch.

            The arch is stainless steel.







14.       The arch is the tallest monument built in the United States.

            The arch was designed by Eero Saarinen.

            Saarinen was an architect.







15.       Saarinen's arch design was chosen because it is simple and familiar.

His design was chosen because it is unique and impressive.







16.       The St. Louis Gateway Arch memorializes struggles.

The St. Louis Gateway Arch memorializes defeats.

The St. Louis Gateway Arch memorializes triumphs.






Final Review Exercise 2  License Plates


1.         Today most cars have license plates.

            The plates are numbered.

            The plates are registered in a particular state.

            A century ago most vehicles had no identification.







2.         According to an old legend, an incident spurred the invention.

            The incident was peculiar.

            The incident was involving a buggy driver and a policeman.

            The invention was of the license tag.







3.         Apparently, the buggy driver was speeding through town.

            He was driving recklessly and scaring old ladies.

            A policeman stopped him.







4.         The policeman could not issue the driver a ticket.

            The policeman wanted to keep his streets safe.

            A ticket was for speeding.

            He demanded that the driver appear in court the next day.

            The driver was to be charged with disturbing the peace.







5.         The policeman learned the man's name and his address.

            The name was "Egbert Main."

            The policeman discovered that the man had lied.

            The man didn't show up in court the next day.

            The man gave an address.

            The address would have been in the middle of the river.

            The river was the Hudson.






6.         After several similar incidents and the invention, the New York Legislature passed the first law.

            The incidents were involving dishonest drivers.

            The invention was of the automobile.

            The law was requiring auto owners to register their cars.








7.         All auto owners would receive a tag.

            The owners paid $1 to register.

            The tag was aluminum.

            The tag was about the size of a half-dollar.

            The tag was stamped with a number and "New York State."

            Individual auto owners could choose how to display their tag.








8.         New York's system was soon copied.

            The system was of keeping track of the new motor cars.

            The system was soon copied by other states and other countries.

            Each state or country had its own style.

            The style was of license tags.








9.         In the United States, for instance, the license plate has a history.

            The history is of different sizes, shapes, colors, and slogans.

            Each state picks its tag's colors.

            The colors are changed almost every year.







10.       On one of its plates, Arizona once used copper.

            The copper was to promote the state's most important metal.

            Illinois once used tags.

            The tags were of pressed fiber and soybeans.

            The tags were to preserve steel.

            Steel was scarce during World War II.







11.       The soybean tags looked fine.

They didn't last long.

Dogs and cows ate them.







12.       All states have agreed on the same size.

            The size is for the plate.

            The size is 6 by 12 inches.

            Most states have retained their own slogans and symbols.

            The slogans and the symbols are for the license plates.

            The slogans are sayings like "America's Dairyland," "Water Wonderland,"

            "Sportsman's Paradise," and "The Beef State."

            The symbols are drawings like bears, bells, and grapefruits.







13.       The variety of license plates provides children some form of entertainment.

            The license plates are seen on highways.

            The children are bored on their long summer vacations.

            The children irritate their parents with their questions.

            The entertainment can teach them about specific industries or lifestyles in faraway states.







14.       But by far, the most interesting, humorous, and often embarrassing plates are the personalized ones.

            They are the ones that reveal something about the driver.

            There is "CAKES" for a baker.

            There is "ROCK" and "ROLL" for two teenaged friends.

            There is "SEXYSR" for one dirty old man.

            There is even "IMEZRU" for one dirty young man.





Final Review Exercise 3  Dream a Little Dream of Me


1.         Dreaming is a collection.

            The collection is of mental images.

            The mental images are fusions.

            The fusions are of pieces.

            The pieces are of memory and knowledge.

            The pieces arise during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.








2.         Humans experience REM sleep.

            Other mammals experience REM sleep.

            Birds experience REM sleep.

            REM sleep is characterized by movements, limbs, respiration, and heartbeat.

            The movements are rapid.

            The movements are of the eye.

            The limbs are immobilized.

            The respiration and heartbeat are irregular.








3.         The act is part.

            The act is of dreaming.

            The part is of heritage.

            The heritage is human.

            The heritage is evolutionary.

            The heritage can be traced back 135 million years.








4.         Some people believe dreams are phenomena.

            The phenomena are meaningless.

            Others believe that dreams may give us insight.

            The insight is greater than reality.

            Dreams bring together experiences with events.

            The experiences are current.

            The events are from our past.





5.         Dreams are common.

            Dreams are of flying.

            Dreams are of walking naked in public.

            These experiences capture fears.

            These experiences capture hopes.

            The fears and hopes are human.

            Dreams vary depending on the age and sex.

            The age and sex are of the dreamer.









6.         In the past, dreams differed.

            The dreams are of women and men.

            The women and men are American.









7.         In the past, women dreamt of scenes.

            They dreamt of conversations.

            They dreamt of themselves as victims.

            The scenes were domestic.

            The conversations were emotional.

            They were victims of aggression.

            Men dreamt of the outdoors.

            Men dreamt of themselves as aggressors.









8.         Now men and women have similar dreams.

            The dreams are of the outdoors.

            The dreams are of sex.

            The dreams are of themselves as aggressors.








9.         The dreams have little content.

            The dreams are of children.

            The children are aged 3 to 5.

            The content is emotional.

            These children make appearances.

            The appearances are rare.

            The appearances are in their dreams.






10.       Children dream in stories.

            The children are aged 5 and 6.

            The stories are of action.

            The dreamers are still not actors.

            The actors are in their own dreams.






11.       By the age of 7 or 8, children dream like adults do.

Children put themselves in their dreams.






12.       Dreams are the most powerful.

The dreams solve a problem.

Many dreams represent a conflict.

The conflict is unresolved.






13.       Some psychologists believe we can control our dreams.

            We choose a problem before we go to sleep.

            We write about it before we go to sleep.

            We ask ourselves a question before we go to sleep.

            The problem is bothering us.

            The question is about the problem.






14.       But we will forget our dreams.

We will miss a possible answer.

The answer is to our question.

We don't write our dreams down.

Dreams vanish within 15 minutes.





Final Review Exercise 4  Earthquakes


1.         Earthquakes are occurrences as old as mankind.

            Most ancients did not understand their cause.

            The ancients thought the earthquakes were acts of God.






2.         For instance, philosophers blamed earthquakes on Poseidon.

            The philosophers were ancient.

            Poseidon was the god of the sea.

            Tribes in Bulgaria believed that earthquakes struck when a water buffalo shifted its weight.

            The water buffalo was enormous.

            It shifted its weight to ease its discomfort.






3.         Early humans saw earthquakes as similar to other misfortunes.

            The misfortunes were natural.

            The misfortunes were caused by God.

            These early humans did not make additional attempts.

            The attempts were to understand earthquakes.






4.         But people in the 17th century became more interested in knowledge.

            The knowledge was scientific.

            They made attempts.

            The attempts were to record earthquakes.





5.         The earthquake occurred in Lisbon, Portugal.

            The earthquake was the first recorded.





6.         Records were kept by priests.

            The records were of deaths caused by earthquakes.

            The priests made the first attempt.

            The attempt was real.

            The attempt was to investigate earthquakes and their effects.




7.         Earthquakes are still not completely understood today.

            Geologists have agreed upon theories.

            The theories are based upon evidence.

            The evidence suggests that tremors result from the rebalancing.

            The rebalancing is of forces.

            The forces are arising from the collision.

            The collision is of plates.

            The plates are moving.

            The plates are of layered rock.

            The plates are floating upon the earth's interior.

            The interior is molten.









8.         Geologists think that over 200 million years ago there was one continental mass.

            The continental mass was one huge plate.

            The plate was of rock.

            Today that rock may have broken into 20 plates.

            The plates are sliding and colliding.








9.         Some of the plates collide, usually at the intersection of continents and oceans.

            The collision changes the geography.

            The geography is of the earth.

            The collision builds island foundations.

            The collision makes mountains rise.

            The collision elevates or lowers existing land masses.

            The collision forces volcanoes to erupt.

            The collision stimulates earthquakes.









10.       Molten material from the earth's interior makes rifts.

            The rifts are in the plates.

            The plates are the newest.

            The plates are beneath the ocean floor.

            Then this process pushes plates slowly apart.

            This process is called "sea spreading."





11.       The plates move.

            Their movement is causing friction.





12.       Sometimes the plates lock together.

            Their locking causes strain underneath them.

            Their locking requires that the strain be relieved.

            Rifts occur in new places or movement occurs within existing rifts.

            The movement causes an earthquake.








13.       Some plates move in a vertical direction.

            The direction is up and down.

            Other plates move in a lateral direction.

            The direction is side to side.







14.       The direction of the movement and several other factors contribute to the amount of destruction.

            The destruction is caused by the earthquake.

            One factor is the depth of the collision.

Another factor is the interference that exists between the collision site and the epicenter of the quake.

            The interference is of rock, mountain, water, and flat land.



15.       Earthquakes occur infrequently.

            The earthquakes are of large magnitude.

            The plates beneath our surface move regularly.

            The plates creep.

            The plates do not lock.