In the following review exercises, you will practice using the modifiers from Units 8 and 9—adjective and verb form modifiers and prepositional phrases. This time the nouns to be modified are not underlined. Continue crossing out repeated words and forms of the verb be.
Review Exercise 1 Nessie
EXAMPLE: Since the 6th century A.D., people have seen a beast.
The people are in the Scottish Highlands.
The beast is strange.
The beast is in a lake.
The lake is deep.
The lake is dark.
The lake is called Loch Ness.
SOLUTION: Since the 6th century A.D., people in the Scottish Highlands have seen a strange beast in a deep, dark lake called Loch Ness.
1. In the 20th century, scientists have tried to substantiate tales.
The tales are outlandish.
The tales are of the monster.
The monster is now named the Loch Ness Monster, or Nessie.
2. Witnesses report that the monster is a creature.
The monster is 20-feet long. *
The creature is long-necked.
The creature is full-bodied.
The creature is with eyes.
The eyes are large.
The eyes are oval-shaped.
The eyes are on top of a head.
The head is small.
The head is snakelike.
3. Many stories come from residents and observers.
The stories are about the monster.
The residents are respected in the community.
The observers are visiting from Europe and abroad.
4. Some of the stories may be legends.
The stories are told by residents.
The residents are along Loch Ness' shores.
The legends are old.
The legends are passed down from grandparents to children.
The children are gathered around firesides.
5. Some people believe the tales are plots to attract tourists.
The plots are created by hotel owners and shopkeepers.
The tourists are gullible.
The tourists are hoping to spend money.
6. Tourists can buy models or plaques.
The models are miniature.
The models are of the monster.
The plaques are commemorative.
The plaques are imprinted with Nessie's picture.
7. Some biologists believe the monster is really an otter, a deer, or a log.
The otter is large.
The otter is playing in the water.
The deer is swimming across the lake.
The log is half-submerged.
The log is decaying.
8. Other scientists believe Nessie could be a descendant of reptiles.
The reptiles were giant.
The reptiles were ocean-dwelling.
The reptiles were trapped in lakes.
The lakes were inland.
The lakes were cut off from the ocean by glaciers.
9. Particles make the lake difficult to explore.
The particles are coffee-colored.
The particles are peat.
The particles are floating in the water.
The lake is deep.
The lake is steep-sided.
10. Teams have investigated Loch Ness with searchlights, radar, cameras, submarines, and
The teams are of scientists.
The radar is underwater.
The cameras are underwater.
The submarines are manned.
The equipment is recording.
The equipment is packed inside oil drums.
The oil drums are watertight.
11. In the 1970s, scientists accepted proof.
The scientists are renowned.
The scientists are from all over the world.
The proof is of Nessie's existence.
The proof is in the form of photographs.
The photographs are showing features.
The features are facial.
The features are of an object.
The object is living.
12. But scientists still don't know what the object is.
The object is unidentified.
The object is swimming.
Review Exercise 2 Sutro Baths Nostalgia
With each set of sentences, create one sentence, using simple adjectives and verb form adjectives and prepositional phrases to modify nouns. Plan your solution by crossing out repeated nouns and forms of the verb be in the sentences containing the modifiers. Be sure to read your sentences out loud after you finish each one.
EXAMPLE: Sutro Baths was a palace.
Sutro Baths was at the end.
The end is northern.
The end is of Ocean Beach.
Ocean Beach is in San Francisco.
The palace was huge.
The palace was of swimming pools.
The pools were for the whole family.
SOLUTION: Sutro Baths, at the northern end of Ocean Beach in San Francisco, was a huge palace of swimming pools for the whole family.
1. The swimming pools were the baths in an era.
The swimming pools were completed in 1894.
The baths were the largest.
The baths were enclosed.
The baths were saltwater.
The baths were in the world.
The era was of many pools.
The pools were indoor.
The pools were saltwater.
2. In 1894, more than 20,000 people attended the inauguration.
The people were pleasure-loving.
The inauguration was featuring a concert and races.
The concert was orchestral.
The races were by swimmers.
The swimmers were competitive.
3. Sutro, Baths also had a museum, a gallery, and a gymnasium.
The museum was exhibiting collections.
The collections were various.
The collections were in display cases.
The gallery was of photographs.
The gymnasium was filled with trapezes and rings.
4. Visitors descended a staircase to pools.
The staircase was wide.
The staircase was bordered with trees.
The trees were palm, pomegranate, and magnolia.
The pomegranate trees were flowering.
The magnolia trees were fragrant.
The pools were glass-enclosed.
The pools were facing the ocean.
5. Visitors could choose between a plunge and other pools.
The plunge was large.
The plunge was L-shaped.
The plunge was unheated.
The other pools were of temperatures.
The temperatures were varied.
The other pools were including one bath.
The bath was freshwater.
6. Water came from basins and a spring.
The water was for the pools.
The basins were constructed in the cliffs.
The cliffs were fronting the ocean.
The spring was ever-flowing.
The spring was freshwater.
7. Around the pools were tiers and balconies.
The tiers were of seats.
The seats were for 5,000 people.
The balconies were for 15,000 more spectators.
The spectators were wandering.
8. Each tier had corridors.
The corridors were decorated with plants, fountains, and creatures.
The plants were tropical.
The creatures were stuffed.
The creatures were in life-like poses.
9. By 1952, Sutro Baths had undergone changes.
The changes were many.
The changes were including the additions and the closing.
The additions were of an ice-skating rink and a beach.
The beach was interior.
The beach was tropical.
The closing was of the pools.
The pools were deteriorating.
10. But Sutro Baths closed in 1952 and the remains burned to the ground.
The baths were costly.
The remains were of the building.
11. Now San Franciscans swim in pools.
The pools are crowded.
The pools are chlorinated.
The pools are divided into lanes.
The lanes are for lap swimmers.
The following Review Exercises make use of all of the structures you have learned in previous lessons: adjective modifiers, prepositional phrase modifiers, coordinators, subordinators, and parallel structures.
NOTE: You should use coordinators and subordinators only where you see brackets that tell you which logical relationship to show.
EXAMPLE: [subordinator-contrast] The child is hungry.
The child is stubborn.
The child refuses to eat.
SOLUTION: Although the stubborn child is hungry, he refuses to eat.
Review Exercise 3 Plastics—On Land and in the Sea
For each set of sentences, create one sentence, joining related ideas with coordinators, subordinators, and parallel structures and modifying nouns with adjectives and prepositional phrases.
EXAMPLE: Plastics have been around for over a century.
[coordinator—result] We now take them for granted.
SOLUTION: Plastics have been around for over a century, so we now take them for granted.
1. Our lifestyle depends heavily on plastics.
Our lifestyle is modem.
Our lifestyle is convenient.
[subordinator or coordinator—cause] They are lightweight, resistant to corrosion, and durable.
2. [subordinator—condition] We took around.
We can see that this marvel has practically invaded our society.
The marvel is synthetic.
3. Pans, windows, and bumpers are a few items that have made our lives easier.
The pans are non-stick.
The pans are Teflon-coated.
The windows are shatterproof
The windows are plastic.
The bumpers are nonrusting.
The bumpers are plastic.
The bumpers are on cars.
[coordinator—contrast] Plastics have also become a menace.
The menace is to our environment.
4. [subordinator—cause] Plastic does not decompose.
Wastes accumulate in piles.
The piles are enormous.
The piles are unsanitary.
The piles are in city dumps.
5. [subordinator—cause] Ocean dumping used to be legal.
Our oceans are now filled with plastics.
The plastics are dangerous.
6. Every year, trash kills or maims thousands.
The trash is floating.
The trash is plastic.
The thousands are of sea creatures.
7. As many as 40,000 seals die from starvation or strangulation each year.
[subordinator—time] They become entangled in netting and packing straps.
The netting and packing straps are plastic.
8. Many sea creatures eat bags and fishing lines that resemble jellyfish or plankton.
The bags and lines are plastic.
[coordinator—result] They die from stomach blockage or bleeding.
The bleeding is internal.
9. The effects are devastating.
The effects are of plastics disposal.
[coordinator—contrast] Some solutions may be on the horizon.
10. Some scientists can make products.
The products are biodegradable.
The products are plastic.
The products are from a mixture.
The mixture is of cornstarch and plastic.
[subordinator—contrast] Scientists worry that the dust could be harmful to breathe.
The dust is fine.
The dust is of plastic.
The plastic is decomposing.
11. Other scientists think wastes could be burned for fuel.
The wastes are plastic.
[subordinator or coordinator—cause] Most plastic is made from petroleum.
12. The idea seems good.
The idea is of burning plastic for fuel.
[subordinator—condition] Technology for burning can be developed.
The burning is safe.
The burning is of plastic.
13. Meanwhile, the whales, seals, and turtles must wait for a generation to work out a solution.
The generation is new.
The generation is of scientists.
The scientists are knowledgeable.
The scientists are concerned.
The solution is to our plastic waste problem.
Review Exercise 4 Superstitions
In the following exercise, you will not be given any cues signaling when to use joining words, so this exercise may seem more challenging than previous review exercises. And although these exercises call for structures you have already worked with in this book, you may come up with alternative ways to combine some of these more open sentence sets.
EXAMPLE: Perhaps you have a pen or a bracelet.
The pen is lucky.
The pen is for writing "A" essays.
The bracelet is favorite.
The bracelet is of lucky charms.
You keep your superstitions secret.
SOLUTION: Perhaps you have a lucky pen for writing "A" essays or a favorite bracelet of lucky charms, but you keep your superstitions secret.
1. You may be embarrassed to admit to your superstitions.
People have had superstitions.
The people are from all cultures and times.
The superstitions are about events and objects.
The events are natural.
2a. The rabbit's foot was a symbol.
The symbol was of good luck.
The symbol was for Celtic tribes.
The Celtic tribes were in Western Europe around 600 B.C.
Celtic tribes believed the rabbit was in contact with forces.
The rabbit was burrowing.
The forces were mysterious.
The forces were from the underground.
2b. The rabbit bears young quite frequently.
The Celtic people considered the rabbit a symbol.
The symbol was powerful.
The symbol was of fertility.
2c. They came to treasure the rabbit's foot.
They believed it could promote fertility.
The fertility was in women.
3a. Adults knock on wood.
The adults are boasting.
They are participating in a 4,000-year-old ritual.
The ritual is Native American Indian.
3b. The Native American Indians believed that boasting could bring bad luck.
The boasting was about a future accomplishment.
They sought to appease the gods by knocking on an oak tree.
4a. Many of us know about the tradition.
The tradition is of breaking a wishbone.
We may not know its origins.
4b. The Etruscans believed that hens and roosters were prophets.
The Etruscans were ancient.
The Etruscans were in Italy.
The hens were squawking before laying an egg.
The roosters were crowing to "foretell" a new day.
4c. Originally, the Etruscans made wishes by stroking the bones.
The bones were unbroken.
The bones were dried.
The bones were clavicle.
The bones were of roosters and hens.
4d. Later, the practice changed.
The practice was of stroking the clavicle.
The reason is not especially mysterious.
The reason is for this change.
4e. Eventually, the custom came about.
The custom was of two people.
The people were tugging at the wishbone to get the larger half.
Too many people wanted to make wishes on too few wishbones.
4f. This superstition survives today in our expression "to get a lucky break."
The superstition is of the wishbone.
5a. We all have heard that walking brings bad luck.
The walking is under a ladder.
Most are unaware that this superstition goes back to about 3,000 B.C. in Egypt.
5b. The triangle represented a trinity.
The triangle was created when a ladder was leaned against a wall.
The trinity was sacred.
The trinity was of gods.
5c. People walked under a ladder.
They would be violating space.
The space was sacred.
6a. A new baby is born.
The parents sometimes tell their children that the stork delivered the baby down the chimney.
This explanation is confusing today.
6b. The Scandinavians originated the story.
The Scandinavians were ancient.
The story is of the stork.
The Scandinavians admired the birds.
The birds are long-lived.
The birds are monogamous.
6c. The Scandinavians noticed that storks lavished attention on their parents.
The storks were adult.
The storks were nesting in chimney tops.
Their parents were elderly.
6d. The stork, therefore, became a symbol.
The symbol is of a life.
The life is long.
The life is happy.
The life is domestic.
7. Our society relies on explanations.
Our society is "civilized."
The explanations are scientific.
Many people still count on superstitions.
The superstitions are passed down from earlier generations.
Many even create their own superstitious beliefs.
* When a modifier showing size is placed before a noun, the word denoting size is singular; we say a 20-foot-long monster, 60-pound girl, or 20-yard line.